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Internal Medicine is the most extensive, technologically advanced and resource intensive area, concerned with the provision of life support or organ support systems in patients who are critically ill and who usually require intensive monitoring. Patients requiring intensive care usually require support for haemodynamic instability (hypertension/hypotension), airway or respiratory compromise (such as ventilator support), acute renal failure, potentially lethal cardiac dysrhythmias, and frequently the cumulative effects of multiple organ system failure. Patients admitted to the intensive care unit not requiring support for the above are usually admitted for the intensive/ invasive monitoring, such as crucial hours after major surgery when the deemed to unstable to transfer to a less intensively monitored unit.

The ICU are equipped with state-of-the-art facilities including mechanical ventilators to assist breathing through an endotracheal tube or a tracheotomy opening; cardiac monitors including external pacemakers and defibrillators; dialysis equipment for renal problems; equipments for constant monitoring of bodily functions; a web of intravenous lines, feeding tubes, nasogastric tubes, suction pumps, drains and catheters; and a wide array of drugs to treat the main condition(s), induce sedation, reduce pain and prevent secondary infections.

Many nurse practitioners and Physician Assistants with specialized training are also part of the staff that provide continuity of care for patients. Staff typically includes specially trained critical care nurses, respiratory therapists, Nutritionist, Physical therapists, nursing assistants etc.

Diabetes Mellitus (DM) – The Disease
Diabetes (Madhumaham) is a complex metabolic disorder known since ages. Body requires energy for all our daily activities. Insulin is a hormoneproduced by beta cells of pancreas which helps to utilize sugar for the purpose of energy. People with diabetes have problem connecting food to energy.

Basically diabetes is a result of Insulin Resistance - which is more prevalent in our countrymen and Insulin Deficiency.

Current Scenario
Diabetes has emerged as a major healthcare problem in india. According to diabetes atlas published by the international diabetes federation (idf), there were an estimated 40 million persons with diabetes in india and this number is predicted to rise to almost 70 million people by 2025. It is estimated that every fifth person with diabetes will be an indian.

Types of Diabetes
Type I: Insulin Dependent (IDDM)

Type 2: Non Insulin Dependent (NIDDM)

Others: Gestational Diabetes (GDM)

Malnutrition Related Diabetes (MRDM)

Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT)

Risk Factors
Having a close family member with Diabetes Type 2
Being overweight (Increased BMI)
High blood pressure
Cardiovascular disease
Having a baby that weighed more than 9 pounds at birth
BMI : Body Mass Index = Weight in kg /height in m2
Usual Presentation
Unexplained tiredness
Weight loss
Increased thirst
Increased urination
Slow healing wounds
Genital itching
Blurry vision
Common Affected Organs
Over the years, high blood glucose damages nerves and blood vessels leading to complications such as heart disease stroke, kidney disease, nerve problems, sexual dissatisfaction, gum infection and amputation of legs.

Why Regular Check-up
Monitoring your blood sugar (also called glucose) level can help you take better care of your diabetes. Checking your blood sugar level will help you learn how food, activity levels, stress medicine and insulin affect your blood sugar level.

Diabetes prevention is possible by adopting some healthy lifestyle habits. Doctors recommend screening for type 2 diabetes at age 30 among people at risk such as those with a family history of diabetes or who are overweight.

Though, certain diabetes risk factors like age, family history and ethnicity cannot be changed. However, modifying your lifestyle habits may help in type 2 diabetes prevention.

Diet & Exercise
Doctors can make specific recommendations that are right on case study varying their suggestions regarding diet change and specific exercise.

What you can do

Stay healthy
Proper Diet
Regular Physical Activity
Regular follow-up with your doctor
Slow healing wounds
Preventive check-up or the development of complication